62

Encoding and Decoding Hidden Meanings in Faceto-Face Communication: Understanding the Role of Verbal and Nonverbal Behaviors in Indirect Replies

Written by: Tobin, P. (Smart Innovation Norway), Ioannidou, F., Basnakova, J. and Chu, M.

Published at: Journal of Experimental Psychology

 

Abstract:

In everyday conversation, we often use indirect replies to save face of our interlocutor (e.g., “Your paper does have room for improvement”). Six experiments were conducted to examine the role of verbal and nonverbal behaviors in the production and comprehension of indirect replies. In Experiments 1a and 1b, participants engaged in question-answer exchanges designed to elicit four types of replies (i.e., direct, indirect, lie, and neutral). Results showed that uncertainty terms, discourse markers and head tilt were most uniquely associated with the production of indirect replies. In Experiments 2a, 2b, 3a and 3b, participants categorized the types of replies in video clips of real participants in Experiments 1a and 1b. Results showed that nonverbal behaviors enhanced the performance and boosted the confidence in the identification of indirect replies. Furthermore, uncertainty terms, discourse markers and head tilt were also the most reliable cues for identifying indirect replies. Finally, the extent to which people relied on verbal and nonverbal cues to identify an indirect reply was context dependent. The more informative the verbal/nonverbal information was, the fewer nonverbal/verbal cues that contributed to the identification of indirect replies. Our results demonstrated that people integrate verbal and nonverbal information to enhance their understanding of the intended meaning in indirect replies. Findings from the current research provide an initial step toward developing a comprehensive and unified model of the production and comprehension of indirect replies, which takes both verbal and nonverbal behaviors into account.

61

The Common Impact Model: a standardized methodology for community acceptance of decarbonized multivector local energy systems

Written by: Beatrice Petrovich (University of St.Gallen), Bonnie Murphy, Thomas Mikkelsen and Minna Kuivalainen (Smart Innovation Norway)

Published at: Ecocity World Summit 2021

 

Abstract:

Today, cities, towns, and villages can increasingly power their electricity, heating, and mobility needs using clean and local energy sources. However, the successful and long-lasting adoption of clean and local energy solutions requires acceptance from different local stakeholders and community members. Our work presents the Common Impact Model (CIM), a structured hands-on methodology to facilitate community acceptance of Decarbonized Multi-vector Local Energy Systems. The CIM is designed for urban planners, energy managers, and those interested in establishing local energy systems and local energy communities. Underpinned by academic literature on the governance and social acceptance of collective energy solutions, the CIM comprises of 3-steps. In phase one, inputs are collected from key stakeholders using a community scoping questionnaire. The community’s core values, priorities and practices are identified, as well as local stakeholders’ rational and emotional reactions to proposed energy solutions. In phase two, data are analysed to visualise the different criteria that guide inclusive energy infrastructure planning. In phase three, engagement recommendations are co-created with the local partner using a tactical workbook. The CIM has been piloted in different contexts, including a harbour in Norway, a technological park in Spain, a township in South India. Based on the field experience, we provide recommendations for participatory planning of local clean energy solutions. The CIM is part of the E-LAND toolbox, a set of tools to establish, optimise and control multi-vector local energy systems, developed by the European founded Horizon2020 project E-LAND. Video abstract available at: https://youtu.be/BFY0zzxaJvc

60

European Energy Regulatory, Socioeconomic, and Organizational Aspects: An Analysis of Barriers Related to Data-Driven Services across Electricity Sectors

Written by: Psara, K (FOSS Research Centre for Sustainable Energy), Papadimitriou, C (FOSS Research Centre for Sustainable Energy), Efstratiadi, M, Tsakanikas, S, Papadopoulos, P, (Elin VERD S.A) and Paul Tobin (Smart Innovation Norway)

Published at: Energies

 

Abstract:

Data-driven services offer a major shift away from traditional monitoring and control approaches that have been applied exclusively over the transmission and distribution networks. These services assist the electricity value chain stakeholders to enhance their data reach and improve their internal intelligence on electricity-related optimization functions. However, the penetration of data-driven services within the energy sector poses challenges across the regulatory, socioeconomic, and organizational (RSEO) domains that are specific to such business models. The present review examines the existence and importance of various obstacles across these domains regarding innovative energy services, new business models, data exchanges, and other actors’ synergies across the electricity data value chain. This research is centered around the European landscape, with a particular focus on the five demonstration countries (Greece, Spain, Austria, Finland, and Croatia) of the SYNERGY consortium. A state-of-the-art analysis on the regulatory, socioeconomic, and organizational aspects related to innovative energy services (IESs) revealed a plethora of such potential obstacles that could affect, in various degrees, the realization of such services, both at a prototyping and a market replication level. More specifically, 13 barriers were identified in the regulatory domain, 19 barriers were identified in the socioeconomic domain, and 16 barriers were identified in the organizational domain. Then, a comprehensive, survey-based data gathering exercise was designed, formulated, and conducted at a national level as well as at a stakeholder type level. To ensure that our analysis encompassed business-wide perspectives and was validated from the whole electricity data value chain, we utilized a trilevel analysis (i.e., partner, stakeholder type, demo country) to formulate qualitative interviews with business experts from each stakeholder type (namely TSOs, DSOs, aggregators/ESCOs, facility managers/urban planners, and RES Operators). By combining the quantitative data with the qualitative interviews, further recommendations on identifying and facilitating ways to overcome the identified barriers are provided. For the regulatory domain, it is recommended to treat nationally missing regulations by conforming to the provisions of the relevant EU directives, as well as to provide a flexibility-related regulation. For the socioeconomic domain, recommendations were made to increase consumer awareness and thus alleviate the three more impactful barriers identified in this domain. All organizational barriers can be alleviated by taking complex big-data-related issues away from the hands of the organizations and offering them data-as-a-service mechanisms that safeguard data confidentiality and increase data quality.

59

KFBCNet: Light Field Boundary-aware and Cascaded Interaction Network for Salient Object Detection

Written by: Mianzhao Wang, Fan Shi, Meng Zhao, Yao Zhang, Chen Jia, Weiwei Tian, Shengyong Chen (Tianjin University of Technology) and Xu Cheng (Smart Innovation Norway)

Published at: 2022 ACM Multimedia

 

Abstract:

In light field imaging techniques, the abundance of stereo spatial information aids in improving the performance of salient object detection. In some complex scenes, however, applying the 4D light field boundary structure to discriminate salient objects from background regions is still under-explored. In this paper, we propose a light field boundary-aware and cascaded interaction network based on light field macro-EPI, named LFBCNet. Firstly, we propose a well-designed light field multi-epipolar-aware learning (LFML) module to learn rich salient boundary cues by perceiving the continuous angle changes from light field macro-EPI. Secondly, to fully excavate the correlation between salient objects and boundaries at different scales, we design multiple light field boundary interactive (LFBI) modules and cascade them to form a light field multi-scale cascade interaction decoder network. Each LFBI is assigned to predict exquisite salient objects and boundaries by interactively transmitting the salient object and boundary features. Meanwhile, the salient boundary features are forced to gradually refine the salient object features during the multi-scale cascade encoding. Furthermore, a light field multi-scale-fusion prediction (LFMP) module is developed to automatically select and integrate multi-scale salient object features for final saliency prediction. The proposed LFBCNet can accurately distinguish tiny differences between salient objects and background regions. Comprehensive experiments on large benchmark datasets prove that the proposed method achieves competitive performance over 2-D, 3-D, and 4-D salient object detection methods.

58

An Enhanced Lightweight Convolutional Neural Network for Ship Detection in Maritime Surveillance System

Written by: Xu Cheng (Smart Innovation Norway), Yifan Yin, Fan Shi, Meng Zhao, Shengyong Chen (Tianjin University of Technology) and Guoyuan Li (NTNU)

Published at: IEEE JOURNAL OF SELECTED TOPICS IN APPLIED EARTH OBSERVATIONS AND REMOTE SENSING

Project of relevance: Independent

 

Abstract:

With the extensive application of artificial intelligence, ship detection from optical satellite remote sensing images using deep learning technology can significantly improve detection accuracy. However, the existing methods usually have complex models and huge computations, which makes them difficult to deploy on resource-constrained devices, such as satellites. To solve this problem, this article proposes an enhanced lightweight ship detection model called ShipDetectionNet to replace the standard convolution with improved convolution units. The improved convolution unit is implemented by applying depthwise separable convolution to replace standard convolution and further using the pointwise group convolution to replace the point convolution in depthwise separable convolution. In addition, the attention mechanism is incorporated into the convolution unit to ensure detection accuracy. Compared to the latest YOLOv5s, our model has a comparable performance in mean average precision, while the number of parameters and the model size are reduced by 14.18% and 13.14%, respectively. Compared to five different lightweight detection models, the proposed ShipDetectionNet is more competent for ship detection tasks. In addition, the ShipDetectionNet is evaluated on four challenging scenarios, demonstrating its generalizability and effectiveness.

57

Gated Convolutional Neural Network for Wind Turbine Blade Icing Detection

Written by: Xu Cheng (Smart Innovation Norway), Weiwei Tian (Tianjin University of Technology) Fan Shi  (Tianjin University of Technology), Guoyuan Li (NTNU), Shengyong Chen (Tianjin University of Technology) and Houxiang Zhang (NTNU)

Published at: IEEE International Conference on Real-time Computing and Robotics

Project of relevance: Independent

 

Abstract:

With increasing concerns for data privacy and ownership, recent years have witnessed a paradigm shift in machine learning (ML). An emerging paradigm, federated learning (FL), has gained great attention and has become a novel design for machine learning implementations. FL enables the ML model training at data silos under the coordination of a central server, eliminating communication overhead and without sharing raw data. In this paper, we conduct a review of the FL paradigm and, in particular, compare the types, the network structures, and the global model aggregation methods. Then, we conducted a comprehensive review of FL applications in the energy domain (refer to the smart grid in this paper). We provide a thematic classification of FL to address a variety of energy-related problems, including demand response, identification, prediction, and federated optimizations. We describe the taxonomy in detail and conclude with a discussion of various aspects, including challenges, opportunities, and limitations in its energy informatics applications, such as energy system modeling and design, privacy, and evolution.

56

A Review of Federated Learning in Energy Systems

Written by: Xu Cheng (Smart Innovation Norway), Chendan Li (Norwegian University of Science and Technology) and Xiufeng Liu (Technical University of Denmark) 

Published at: 2022 IEEE IAS Industrial and Commercial Power System Asia (IEEE I&CPS Asia 2022) Conference

Project of relevance: Independent

 

Abstract:

With increasing concerns for data privacy and ownership, recent years have witnessed a paradigm shift in machine learning (ML). An emerging paradigm, federated learning (FL), has gained great attention and has become a novel design for machine learning implementations. FL enables the ML model training at data silos under the coordination of a central server, eliminating communication overhead and without sharing raw data. In this paper, we conduct a review of the FL paradigm and, in particular, compare the types, the network structures, and the global model aggregation methods. Then, we conducted a comprehensive review of FL applications in the energy domain (refer to the smart grid in this paper). We provide a thematic classification of FL to address a variety of energy-related problems, including demand response, identification, prediction, and federated optimizations. We describe the taxonomy in detail and conclude with a discussion of various aspects, including challenges, opportunities, and limitations in its energy informatics applications, such as energy system modeling and design, privacy, and evolution.

55

Day-ahead Inflow Forecasting using causal empirical Decomposition

Written by: Mojtaba Yousefi (Western Norway University of Applied Science), Xiaomei Cheng (Smart Innovation Norway), Michele Gazzea (Western Norway University of Applied Science), August Hubert Wierling (Western Norway University of Applied Science), Jayaprakash Rajasekharan (Norwegian University of Science and Technology), Arild Helseth (SINTEF), Hossein Farahmand (Norwegian University of Science and Technology) and Reza Arghandeh (Western Norway University of Applied Science)

Published at: Journal of Hydrology

Project of relevance: InHydro

 

Abstract:

It is essential to have accurate and reliable daily-inflow forecasting to improve short-term hydropower scheduling. This paper proposes a Causal multivariate Empirical mode Decomposition (CED) framework as a complementary pre-processing step for a day-ahead inflow forecasting problem. The idea behind CED is combining physics-based causal inference with signal processing-based decomposition to get the most relevant features among multiple time-series to the inflow values. The CED framework is validated for two areas in Norway with different meteorological and hydrological conditions. The validation results show that using CED as a pre-processing step significantly enhances (up to 70%) the forecasting accuracy for various state-of-the-art forecasting methods.

54

Assessment of the potential of local solar generation for providing ship shore power in the Norwegian harbour Port of Borg

Written by: Farhan Farrrukh (Smart Innovation Norway), Martha Hoffmann (Renier Lemoine Institute), Ciara Dunks (Renier Lemoine Institute), Per Olav Dypvik

Published at: EEM22 – European Energy Market Conference

Project of relevance: FLEXGRID

 

Abstract:

Decreasing the costs of renewable energy sources (RES) allows for the increase in their implementation in local energy systems (LES). For industrial customers, RES integration offers very site-specific benefits. In the case of the pilot site analysed in this paper, namely the Norwegian harbour Port of Borg (POB), these benefits are two-fold: decreased electricity bills and new business opportunities. First, local generation implies the chance to decrease their electricity expenditures by increasing self-consumption and avoiding peak demand pricing expenses. For this, POB wants to evaluate the impact of newly installed PV and coupled battery storage in the port. Additionally, they want to assess the feasibility to provide ship shore power at their site, which could both pose a new business model as well as a way to maximise local generation and improve local air quality. Scenarios considering the installation of PV (with battery storage) and the provision of ship-shore power at the port are techno-economically analysed using an open-source optimization tool, the Multi-Vector Simulator (MVS). The results of the assessment show that a large-scale PV plant of 1 MWp coupled with a battery can save 44 kNOK p.a. in peak demand pricing expenditures and reduce total electricity bills for the port by 40 % but does not result in a lower LCOE than the initial design. The LCOE increases by 0.314 NOK/kWh with the installation of a PV plant. This result is contested due to recent electricity price increases in Norway, where the LCOE is shown to decrease by 0.152 NOK/kWh with the new PV installation. The effects of providing ship-shore power with multiple ship-shore profiles are shown to increase the local renewable energy utilization of the system. However, at the current electricity prices, additional PV/battery capacities to cover the new demand is not economically feasible. A significant increase in peak demand pricing expenditures with the inclusion of ship-shore power supply means that tariffs should be implemented for the ship-shore user in order for this option to be a successful business model for the port.

53

A Business Case for Flexibility Market Operators Using Algorithms for Improved Market Efficiency

Written by: Pau Pana i Ollé, Olav Henrik Skonnord, Bryan Pellerin and Stig Ødegaard Ottesen (Smart Innovation Norway)

Published at: EEM22 – European Energy Market Conference

Project of relevance: FLEXGRID

 

Abstract:

The expected high penetration of distributed energy resources (DERs) in distribution systems is already challenging distribution system operators’ (DSOs) management of their grids. Flexibility markets are a promising tool for DSOs to ensure the security and quality of supply in a cost-effective manner. However, most of the existing local flexibility market (LFM) platforms do not explicitly consider network constraints in market clearing, which could aggravate the local network problems in future scenarios. In this paper the business case for a network-aware continuous clearing algorithm for LFMs is presented through the quantitative analysis of the algorithm performance in different scenarios. The focus of the paper is on the quantitative performance of the algorithm and how it can affect the different business actors involved.

52

Overcoming the challenges of SME’s and research organization’s Cyber Security management: The case of Smart Innovation Norway

Written by: Alemu Belay, Heidi Tuiskula, Mattia Lerario and Shaun Reardon (Smart Innovation Norway)

Published at: Techconnect

Project of relevance: Independent

 

Abstract:

The paper investigates the cybersecurity management systems of SMEs and research institutes. It identified the key aspects of cyber security management and explored the sources and types of cybersecurity challenges with their associated risks and mitigation methods. Smart Innovation Norway (research organization) was considered as a case and the authors analyzed user data collected from its five different departments during six months. For the analysis purpose, various statistical methods and visualization dashboards were used. In the analysis, the authors extracted usage data from the organization’s Microsoft tenant using the dedicated tools for compliance and security. The result from the analysis showed a total compliance score for Smart Innovation Norway (SIN) of 85%. This score is based on ISO 27001 controls. We also investigated the main reasons for improvement to achieve the required compliance level. The research analyzed the impact of IT awareness before and after training and compared the compliance score of SIN with similar-sized organizations using Microsoft 365 portals. The result comprises a business impact assessment and the bow tie method which includes mitigation actions and preventive measures. Furthermore, the paper lays a foundation and has implications for managing cyber security not only for the SME and research organization but also for startups that have limited resources.

51

Energy Research and Innovation Discourses, Applications, and Future Directions: A Review and Case Discussions from National and International Projects

Written by: Alemu Belay and Heidi Tuiskula (Smart Innovation Norway)

Published at: EnergyCON 2022

Project of relevance: FLEXGRID

 

Abstract:

The research investigates the trends and state of art on energy research and innovation by closely looking into energy-focused literature and mapping the review results and making a reflection using ongoing and completed projects of the case organization. For this, more than 20 national and EU-funded international projects of Smart Innovation Norway (SIN) were considered. Both the projects’ mapping and the literature showed the trend toward community and citizens-oriented solutions. The solutions cover multifold dimensions including multivector, flexibility services, modular tools, active engagement of the community, social innovation, etc. In this regard, the content analysis of SIN’s completed and ongoing projects seems to emphasize socio-economic values whereas most of the literature focused on technology advancement. E- LAND, which is one of the EU-funded projects that bring together society, business, and technology, is discussed as an example. E-LAND puts society (community and citizens) at the center and provides modular tools for energy communities. The research has implications for energy research, energy communities, businesses, policymakers, and academia in the context of creating synergy and developing an innovative solution that helps to accelerate the green transition.

50

Business ecosystem of local flexibility platforms with corresponding business models in a digital energy system

Written by: Sanket Puranik and Bryan Pellerin (Smart Innovation Norway)

Published at: EnergyCON 2022

Project of relevance: FLEXGRID

 

Abstract:

A digital energy system requires innovative Information Communication Technology (ICT) tools that support different types of flexible energy sources and their interactions in novel local flexibility markets within the electricity sector. This paper provides a business ecosystem overview of different stakeholders looking to manage and participate in local flexibility markets. The paper also describes ICT tools developed to facilitate the operations of these stakeholders. The focus is on specific features and the value propositions delivered to different actors in the business ecosystem. In addition, the paper brings an overview of the business models associated with these innovative ICT tools and corresponding business cases for important actors of flexibility markets. In sum, the paper gives an overview of key aspects that should be considered in the development of efficient and resilient energy systems with flexible energy resources.

49

Optimal investments into rooftop solar and batteries for a distribution grid company and prosumers: A case study in India

Written by: Sanket Puranik, Farhan Farrrukh (Smart Innovation Norway), Martha Hoffmann (Renier Lemoine Institute) and Sunil Sharma (BSES Yamuna Power Ltd)

Published at: EnergyCON 2022

Project of relevance: E-LAND

 

Abstract:

Rooftop solar power plants, hereafter rooftop solar, have good potential to decarbonize local energy systems in countries like India. This paper investigates optimal sizing of rooftop solar together with lithium-ion batteries from the perspectives of distribution grid companies and prosumers. For this, a techno-economic analysis is performed on a case study in Delhi using an optimization tool, the Multi-Vector Simulator. Results indicate that with current incentives it is an economically attractive option for domestic consumers to invest in rooftop solar to become prosumers, while investments in battery storage do not lead to economic benefits. However, the availability of upfront investments and roof areas could limit the growth of prosumers. For distribution grid companies growing prosumers means a reduction in revenues. By investing in rooftop solar, distribution grid companies can improve their profitability and self-meet their obligation to purchase renewable energy. For policymakers, it is important to design policy instruments that support both the prosumers as well as the grid operators.

48

The Need for a Comprehensive Ontology for Smart Buildings

Written by: Bernt A. Bremdal (UiT and SIN), Iliana Ilieva and Sanket Puranik (Smart Innovation Norway)

Published at: EnergyCON 2022

Project of relevance: DataCat

 

Abstract:

Digitization and automation in the building sector are constantly increasing. Developments around the Internet of Things (IoT) also affect this industry. However, due to the lack of common standards, the development of building automation has been complicated, expensive, and slowly progressing. This paper presents an approach to increase the utilization of sensor data. The approach will help develop smart buildings where energy efficiency is increased and where better interaction with surrounding infrastructure is facilitated. The paper’s focus is on ontologies that make communication more intelligent, data labelling more efficient and utilization of collected and real-time data more expedient relative to the building’s performance, area utilization and user experience. The idea is not to replace existing ontologies, but to create an overarching structure that connects essential concepts representing different perspectives of a building and interactions with surrounding infrastructure. We call this structure a hyper-ontology. The presented in the paper approach reflects ongoing work in the project DataCat.

47

The Role of the Flexibility Aggregator within the Flexibility Value Chain and Associated Research Needs

Written by: Iliana Ilieva and Olav Henrik Skonnord (Smart Innovation Norway)

Published at: EnergyCON 2022

Project of relevance: Independent research

 

Abstract:

This paper discusses important issues concerning the role of the flexibility aggregator within the flexibility value chain. Specifically, main business and operational characteristics of the aggregator are being exposed, together with gaps found in earlier research. Consequently, it became possible to extract the key research needs that future scientific work focusing on the flexibility aggregator should pay attention to. Based on the investigation carried, it was concluded that, in the course of future research on the topic, attention should be paid on ensuring robust estimates for flexibility baseline and predictions, adequate risk assessment of various flexibility assets compositions, appropriate usage of timing and pricing, attractive contract regimes and optimized aggregation/disaggregation approaches.

46

The Role of Electric Snowmobiles and Rooftop Energy Production in the Arctic: The Case of Longyearbyen

Written by: Shayan Dadman (UiT), Bernt A. Bremdal (UiT and SIN), Kristoffer Tangrand (UiT)

Published at: J. Clean Energy Technol. 2021

Project of relevance: Smart Charge

 

Abstract:

The research presented here has been conducted in the Smart Charge project. It has addressed the use of renewables, e-mobility and battery charging in the Arctic as part of an effort to solicit fossil-fuelled alternatives. Of particular interest has been to determine what impact and support electric snowmobiles can provide together with local, renewable energy production. The relevance of vehicle-togrid/building (V2G/B) solutions have been investigated in the project too. The idea has been to use electric snowmobiles for load shaving during extensive periods of the year. The research has looked at cost aspects, value stacking, climate impact as well as aggregated effects of controlled fleet management of idle snowmobiles. A case study undertaken at Longyearbyen at Svalbard, Norway has provided the most important empirical basis for the research presented. The research concludes that electric snowmobiles can have a positive effect on the local energy system and despite limited range can be quite attractive for the individual to operate if energy for charging is based on local driving solar power.

45

Enabling Technologies for Wide-Scale Implementation of Energy Communities’ Projects

Written by: Fabio Maria Aprà, Raymond Sterling (R2M Solution Spain SL), Mojtaba Yousefi, Farhan Farrukh (Smart Innovation Norway), Jussi Kiljander (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland), Alessandra Cuneo (RINA Consulting S.p.A), Gabriele Comodi (Dipartimento di “Ingegneria Industriale e Scienze Matematiche”, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Sistemi per l’energia e l’ambiente, 60121 Ancona, Italy), Alexis David (European Construction, Built Environment and Energy Efficient Building Technology Platform (ECTP), 1000 Brussels, Belgium), Marialaura di Somma (ENEA, Agenzia nazionale per le nuove tecnologie, l’energia e lo sviluppo economico sostenibile, 00196 Rome, Italy), Ismini Dimitriadou (Hypertech) and Stylianos Zikos (Centre for Research and Technology-Hellas (CERTH), Information Technologies Institute, 57001 Thessaloniki, Greece)

Published at: Environmental sciences proceedings, 2021

Project of relevance: FLEXGRID

 

Abstract:

The cluster on Enabling Technologies in the framework of the Fast Track on Energy Communities workshop held in Rome during the Sustainable Places 2021 conference presented a series of H2020 projects and their innovative technological solutions to facilitate the uptake of energy communities, demand-response and energy efficiency projects in Europe.

44

Inflow Forecasting Based On Principal Component Analysis and Long Short Term Memory

Written by: Xiaomei Cheng (Smart Innovation Norway), Hossein Farahmand (Department of Electric Power Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway), Mojtaba Yousefi (Department of Computer Technology, Electrical Technology and Science, Høgskulen på Vestlandet), Reza Arghandeh (Department of Computer Technology, Electrical Technology and Science, Høgskulen på Vestlandet) and Hao Wang (School of Electronic Engineering, Xidian University, Xidian, China)

Published at: The 6th IEEE Cyber Science and Technology Congress (CyberSciTech 2021)

Project of relevance: IntHydro

 

Abstract:

The paper presents a set of prototype smart grid technologies and services and validates the economic viability of the proposed solution using cost–benefit analysis (CBA). The study considered the EU-funded project called RESOLVD and implemented the technologies and services in a real-life pilot. The paper focuses on the analysis of technological solutions which enhance the operational efficiency and the hosting capacity of low-voltage electricity distribution grids. The solutions provided better integration of a hybrid battery storage system, with the grid interfacing power electronics, smart gateways for the interconnection of assets at the grid edge, and sensors enhancing infrastructure observability and control. The result from the CBA indicates the economic viability of the project, high scalability, and replicability. The economic benefits were realized with the breakeven value of eight secondary substations (SS) and 16 feeders. The scenario test on the DSO’s willingness to pay for the software as a service (SaaS) revealed that the payback period can further be reduced by almost half with a higher internal rate of return (IRR) and net present value (NPV). Both the CBA and scenario tests showed RESOLVD solution can become more economically viable when deployed in largescale. Moreover, the CBA results provide evidence to the energy policy by allowing DSOs to consider both CAPEX and OPEX for better investment decisions. Further, the paper proposes an alternative business approach that shifts from grid reinforcement to service provision. The paper also discusses the research implications on energy policy and business.

43

Developing Novel Technologies and Services for Intelligent Low Voltage Electricity Grids: Cost–Benefit Analysis and Policy Implications

Written by: Alemu Moges Belay, Sanket Puranik, Heidi Tuiskula (Smart Innovation Norway), Ramon Gallart-Fernández (Estabanell Energia), Joaquim Melendez (Institut d’Informàtica i Aplicacions, University of Girona), Ilias Lamprinos (Intracom S.A. Telecom Solutions), Francisco Díaz-González  (Centre D’innovació Tecnològica en Convertidors Estàtics i Accionaments (CITCEA-UPC), Department of Electrical Engineering, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya ETS d’Enginyeria Industrial de Barcelona) and Miha Smolnikar (ComSensus d.o.o.; Jožef Stefan Institute)

Published at: Energies, 2021

Project of relevance: RESOLVD

 

Abstract:

The paper presents a set of prototype smart grid technologies and services and validates the economic viability of the proposed solution using cost–benefit analysis (CBA). The study considered the EU-funded project called RESOLVD and implemented the technologies and services in a real-life pilot. The paper focuses on the analysis of technological solutions which enhance the operational efficiency and the hosting capacity of low-voltage electricity distribution grids. The solutions provided better integration of a hybrid battery storage system, with the grid interfacing power electronics, smart gateways for the interconnection of assets at the grid edge, and sensors enhancing infrastructure observability and control. The result from the CBA indicates the economic viability of the project, high scalability, and replicability. The economic benefits were realized with the breakeven value of eight secondary substations (SS) and 16 feeders. The scenario test on the DSO’s willingness to pay for the software as a service (SaaS) revealed that the payback period can further be reduced by almost half with a higher internal rate of return (IRR) and net present value (NPV). Both the CBA and scenario tests showed RESOLVD solution can become more economically viable when deployed in largescale. Moreover, the CBA results provide evidence to the energy policy by allowing DSOs to consider both CAPEX and OPEX for better investment decisions. Further, the paper proposes an alternative business approach that shifts from grid reinforcement to service provision. The paper also discusses the research implications on energy policy and business.

42

Construction cost performance under qualitygated framework: the cases of Norwegian road constructions

Written by: Alemu Moges Belay (Smart Innovation Norway) and Olav Torp Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU)

Published at: International Journal of Construction Management, 2021

Project of relevance: Independent

 

Abstract:

Cost increase during the planning phase of major infrastructure projects is a crucial challenge which is typical in construction management. This research aims to provide a better understanding of the cost development of road-construction projects and enhance the knowledge on various project attributes that affect cost development. A detailed cost development study (quantitatively chart the cost- trends) and analysis on cost departures at each key-milestone starting from the initial to the final cost is conducted. The impact of different project attributes/settings (size, location, and quality assurance) on cost development are investigated. The research used a dataset of 110 projects from the last two-decades and analyzed using various statistical tests such as trend-analysis, probability-plots, and cost development overtime at the different project milestones. The results showed a decrease in cost-deviation after quality assurance scheme implemented (except few projects). The overall cost development showed an average increase of 5%. The research found different project-setting affect cost development at different magnitude. It provides new insight for construction managers, quality assurers, and cost-estimators to consider different project settings at the early-phases of the project. It helps to understand the individual and combined effects of project-settings and enable decision-makers to act proactively in cost decisions.

41

Integrated ICT tools to support flexibility management in future distribution networks

Written by: Iliana Ilieva, Olav Henrik Skonnord, Stig Ø Ottesen (Smart Innovation Norway) and Sara Marie Ambjørndalen (Movel AS, Norway)

Published at: CIRED Conference 2021

Project of relevance: Independent

 

Abstract:

Linking various energy sectors has proven to be an effective way of decarbonizing the energy system. The interconnection between different sectors allows synergies between them to be exploited, thus integrating higher amount of renewable energy. Energy systems where different energy sectors and vectors are optimally operated in combined fashion are often called local multi-energy systems (MES). However, regulations play a key role for the large-scale deployment of local MES and often decide their economic and legal feasibility. Regulations are, therefore, seen as one of the major barriers to achieve the full potential of local MES. The objective of this paper is to assess policy and regulatory environment concerning implementation of local MES in several European countries. The proposed approach allows case-by-case assessment of regulatory impact on local MES implementation. Further development of the methodology is needed to allow comparison between different countries, finding markets which are most supportive for local MES and providing recommendations to policy makers.

40

Integrated ICT tools to support flexibility management in future distribution networks

Written by: Bryan Pellerin, Iliana Ilieva, Farhan Farrukh (Smart Innovation Norway), Prodromos Makris, Emmanouel (Manos) Varvarigos, Nikolaos Efthymiopoulo (Institute of Communication and Computer Systems (ICCS), National Technical University of Athens (NTUA), Athens, Greece), Mihai Calin (Austrian Institute of Technology, Austria) and Malte Thoma (badenova AG & Co. AG, Germany)

Published at: CIRED Conference 2021

Project of relevance: FLEXGRID


Abstract:

Novel distributed-level flexibility market architectures require new interactions between DSOs and other market participants. Integrated ICT tools are proposed to support the exchange of information and innovative services that support the operation of the electricity network in a context of high penetration of intermittent renewable energy supply. This paper discusses ICT tools designed to assist network operators, flexibility suppliers and finally market operators, and make the flexibility markets both efficient and attractive. These tools utilise innovative models and algorithms to facilitate network-aware flexibility market clearing while giving DSOs intelligent prognosis for improved grid operation and investment planning. These functionalities provide value to DSOs that can be exploited in today’s electricity system landscape, while the value propositions delivered by the ICT services can increase significantly as flexibility markets mature and are deployed in commercial operations. A stepwise deployment of these ICT tools can be a strategic way to capture this value while building a sustainable business model for market actors and technology providers alike.

39

The implementation of multi-energy systems - policy and regulatory implications

Written by: Iliana Ilieva, Sanket Puranik, Farhan Farrukh (Smart Innovation Norway) and Mirza Haider (Grenoble Institute of Technology, France)

Published at: CIRED Conference 2021

Project of relevance: CINELDI / E-LAND


Abstract:

Linking various energy sectors has proven to be an effective way of decarbonizing the energy system. The interconnection between different sectors allows synergies between them to be exploited, thus integrating higher amount of renewable energy.

Energy systems where different energy sectors and vectors are optimally operated in combined fashion are often called local multi-energy systems (MES).

However, regulations play a key role for the large-scale deployment of local MES and often decide their economic and legal feasibility. Regulations are, therefore, seen as one of the major barriers to achieve the full potential of local MES.

The objective of this paper is to assess policy and regulatory environment concerning implementation of local MES in several European countries. The proposed approach allows case-by-case assessment of regulatory impact on local MES implementation.

Further development of the methodology is needed to allow comparison between different countries, finding markets which are most supportive for local MES and providing recommendations to policy makers.

38

A Systemic Approach to Investigate the Gaps between Distribution System Operators Need and Technology Developers’ Perception—A Case Study of an Intelligent Low-Voltage Grid Management System with Storage

Written by: Alemu Moges Belay, Sanket Puranik, Heidi Tuiskula (Smart Innovation Norway) and Francisco Díaz-González (Center for Technological Innovation in Static Converters and Drives, Polytechnic University of Catalonia)

Published at: Energies

Project of relevance: RESOLVD


Abstract:

The purpose of the paper is to introduce a new bi-directional approach to assess the gap between the customer needs and technology developers’ perception on the value propositions of innovations which includes storages.

The paper used two methods; the first comprehensive sense and respond analysis investigated technology developers’ perceptions using the value propositions defined under the EU-funded H2020 RESOLVD project. The second method focused on customers and collected a survey which covered challenges, value propositions and preparedness to adopt new technology.

The H2020 RESOLVD project has developed an intelligent low-voltage grid management system with storage. The results from the sense and respond analysis showed that most of the value propositions aligned with the responses from the broader survey which are needed within five years (e.g., improved power quality of grid, fault detection, reduced technical loss).

However, the cybersecurity perception differed between developers and distribution system operators (DSOs). The customer survey highlighted that certain value propositions of technological solutions are needed more urgently than others, and therefore, technology developers should prioritize these in further developments. Regarding the use of flexibility to manage the LV grid, unclear regulations were expressed as a key barrier, thereby affecting business feasibility around battery storage.

37

Utilizing Local Flexibility Resources to Mitigate Grid Challenges at Electric Vehicle Charging Stations

Written by: Iliana Ilieva and Bernt A. Bremdal (Smart Innovation Norway and University of Tromsø)

Published at: Energies

Project of relevance: CINELDI


Abstract:

Charging of electric vehicles (EVs) on a large scale can cause problems for the grid. Utilizing local flexibility resources, such as smart charging, stationary battery, vehicle-to-grid applications, and local generation can be an efficient way to contain the grid challenges and mitigate the need for grid reinforcement.

Focusing on the INSPIRIA charging station located in Norway, this paper investigates the possibility of coping with imminent grid challenges by means of local flexibility. First, the potential grid challenges are estimated with the help of Monte Carlo simulations. Second, cost and performance for the various local flexibility sources are presented. Third, an analysis of the choice of battery, charging process, and battery economy are provided.

Finally, the paper discusses the optimal mix of flexibility resources to efficiently mitigate grid challenges at the INSPIRIA charging station.

36

Flexibility-Enhancing Charging Station to Support the Integration of Electric Vehicles

Written by: Iliana Ilieva and Bernt A. Bremdal (Smart Innovation Norway and University of Tromsø)

Published at: World Electric Vehicle Journal

Project of relevance: CINELDI


Abstract:

This paper discusses the Inspiria charging station facility in Norway, which enables various charging point operators to offer different charging systems for different purposes and needs.

The charging station can be considered a specific case of a shared economy, as users share the same infrastructure and much of the same space. By utilizing new technology and the differences in charging needs in an innovative way, the power requirements for charging can be controlled and the severity of high-load periods can be reduced – both within the charging station’s system and outside it.

Using historical traffic data from the Inspiria charging station’s area and Monte Carlo simulations, this study investigated the impact of charging on the grid – both in the current period and in the future. Attention was paid to the impact associated with the usage of superfast chargers. The possibility of containing grid disturbances through utilization of local flexibility was investigated.

Finally, we investigated the benefits that the charging station model brings to charging point operators and car owners. The research reported provides support for ambitions for accelerated roll-out and increased density of cost-effective charging points, the wider implication of which concerns the transition to fossil-free transport and the utilization of locally generated, renewable energy.

35

Optimal midterm peak shaving cost in an electricity management system using behind customers’ smart meter configuration

Written by: Agustin A.Sánchez de la Nieta (Energy & Resources group, Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Utrecht University), Iliana Ilieva (Smart Innovation Norway), Madeleine Gibescu (Energy & Resources group, Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Utrecht University), Bernt A. Bremdal (Smart Innovation Norway and The University of Tromsø), Stig Simonsen (Skagerak Energi AS), Eivind Gramme (Skagerak Energi AS)

Published at: Applied Energy

Project of relevance: E-REGIO


Abstract:

This paper analyses a local electricity system (LES) comprising photovoltaic production (PV), a connection to the distribution network, local loads and an energy storage system (ESS). Given the flexibility of the ESS, the LES can provide a peak shaving service (PSS) to the grid operator based on the actual monthly power tariff.

The paper proposes a stochastic mixed-integer linear programming problem that maximises the expected operatingprofit of the LES midterm. Assuming a behind customers’ smart meter configuration, income is derived from selling the energy of prosumers to other external electrical areas. If the costs are higher than the income, the net profit will be negative, i.e. a net loss. The cost component of the objective function can be reduced through the management of local resources and by providing PSS to the distribution network operator to minimise the power cost of the monthly power tariff.

The model is tested for 720 h (considering a month of 30 days) in three cases: (i) without PV and ESS; (ii) with PV and ESS, where losses are 0%; (iii) with PV and ESS, where losses are 18%. Due to the monthly power tariff, the net loss of the LES is reduced through the optimal management of local resources when the ESS losses are lower than 18%. To assess seasonal implications about the LES, the 12 months of the year are also tested. The month of October indicated the highest peak shaving, while the lowest peak shaving depended on the ESS losses.

34

Implementing local flexibility markets and the uptake of electric vehicles – the case for Norway

Written by: Iliana Ilieva (Smart Innovation Norway), Bernt A. Bremdal (Smart Innovation Norway and The University of Tromsø)

Published at: ENERGYCON 2020

Project of relevance: CINELDI


Abstract:

Pursuing a common goal to mitigate climate change and contribute to a cleaner environment, end-users are taking over a more locally focused and sustainable lifestyle.

In compliance to this social trend, recent years have brought a strong push towards electrification of transport and in Norway the interest in electricity driven personal cars has become particularly high. To realize the environmental benefit associated with electric vehicles, however, it is necessary to have enough power generation from renewable energy sources and sufficient capacity in the grid. Yet, renewable energy sources are typically intermittent in nature and pose challenges to the power system, while investments in increased grid capacity can be very costly. In this respect, the usage of energy flexibility to alleviate such challenges can be an efficient solution.

This paper contributes to the research field by referring to eminent experiences from local market implementation trials in Norway – a country with a particularly high electric vehicle uptake rate. The paper pays focus to the flexibility opportunities stemming from charging of electric vehicles and to the “locality” as an important aspect of the market solution. Discussing key issues related to flexibility potential, local market design and implementation, the paper serves as a good reference point to support further steps towards local flexibility markets establishments.

33

Towards a Reference Architecture for Cloud Based Flexibility Services in the Electricity Domain

Written by: Bernt A Bremdal (Smart Innovation Norway, UiT – The Arctic University of Tromsø), Hossein Fahramand (Norwegian University of Science and Technology), Pau Lloret-Gallego (Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya), Stig Ødegaard Ottesen (eSmart Systems), Sanket Puranik (Smart Innovation Norway), Bryan Pellerin (Smart Innovation Norway), Dagfinn Waage (Lyse Group)

Published at: CIRED 2020, 22-23 September

Project of relevance: INVADE


Abstract:

The H2020 project INVADE has addressed optimal activation of the different flexibility services using the cloud-based solution in the electricity domain. The results have been tested full-scale at different sites around Europe. Both business aspects and technical issues have been addressed.

To provide effective instruments for practice sharing, collaborating and communicating, sound reference architectures should be established. The paper deliberates on the findings from H2020 INVADE and proposes a way to expand existing frameworks for Smart Grids.

32

Investment planning in multi-vector energy systems: Definition of key performance indicators

Written by: Martha Hoffmann (Reiner Lemoine Institut), Sanket Puranik (Smart Innovation Norway), Marc Juanpera (Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya Barcelona Tech), José M Martín-Rapún (Inycom), Heidi Tuiskula (Smart Innovation Norway), Philipp Blechinger (Reiner Lemoine Institut)

Published at: CIRED 2020, 22-23 September

Project of relevance: E-LAND


Abstract:

With rising focus on integrating high shares of renewable energy into energy supply systems, the need to meet the viability of theses renewable sources becomes pressing. Apart from storing electricity in electro-chemical storage units, the concept of sector coupling could promise to provide the needed flexibility and storage capacities. A strong metric is needed to determine the viability and economic feasibility of different sector-coupled energy systems.

This conference paper presents an empirical method to develop a list of key performance indicators (KPI), as a direct adaption of the KPI of energy system with a single energy vector is not always possible. The list was developed based on a stakeholder workshop within the H2020 research project E-Land.

We propose the introduction of three new indicators for the evaluation of sector-coupled energy systems, namely degree of autonomy, levelized cost of energy and degree of sector coupling. A sector-coupled case study is evaluated to validate the performance of such new indicators while proving their utility to better assist decision-making.

31

A Framework for Offering Short-term Demand-Side Flexibility to a Flexibility Marketplace

Written by: Stig Ø. Ottesen (eSmart Systems and Smart Innovation Norway), Martin Haug and Heidi S. Nygård (Norwegian University of Life Sciences)

Published at: Energies

Project of relevance: Independent research


Abstract:

The decarbonization of the power sector involves electrification and a massive deployment of variable renewable energy sources, leading to an increase of local transmission congestion and ramping challenges. A possible solution to secure grid stability is local flexibility markets, in which prosumers can offer demand-side flexibility to the distribution system operator or other flexibility buyers through an aggregator.

The purpose of this study was to develop a framework for estimating and offering short-term demand-side flexibility to a flexibility marketplace, with the main focus being baseline estimation and bid generation. The baseline is estimated based on forecasts that have been corrected for effects from earlier flexibility activations and potential planned use of internal flexibility. Available flexibility volumes are then estimated based on the baseline, physical properties of the flexibility asset and agreed constraints for baseline deviation.

The estimated available flexibility is further formatted into a bid that may be offered to a flexibility marketplace, where buyers can buy and activate the offered flexibility, in whole or by parts. To illustrate and verify the proposed methodology, it was applied to a grocery warehouse. Based on real flexibility constraints, historic meter values, and forecasts for this use-case, we simulated a process where the flexibility is offered to a hypothetic flexibility marketplace through an aggregator.

30

The impact of end-user market integration and the smart grid on electricity retailers in the Nordic region

Written by: Iliana Ilieva (Smart Innovation Norway) and Steven A. Gabriel (University of Maryland)

Published at: Journal of energy markets

Project of relevance: Independent research


Abstract:

The Nordic end-user market for electricity has been subject to significant changes. The energy authorities within the Nordic countries have been intensively working to create a common electricity retail market that is fully operational, and all customers have had smart meters installed in 2019.

These changes are of particular concern for the suppliers of retail electric power as competition will increase and the retail products and offers related to the smart grid and the specific customers’ needs will gain importance. With the help of a mixed complementarity problem formulation that describes a simplified market setting with two competing retailers, we analyze the impact of the pending market changes on electricity retailers’ price markup and profit.

29

Steering by the Southern Sun: Australians Are Missing a Trick on Solar-Powered Electric Vehicles

Written by: Arjun Flora, Gerard Wynn (IEEFA), Simon Nicholas (IEEFA), Christian Kunze (Smart Innovation Norway)

Publisehd at: IEEFA – Institute for Energy Economics and Financial Analysis, December 2019

Project of relevance:


Abstract:

With reference to the E-REGIO project, an important point to make is that digitalisation and digital trends are capable of increasing the integration of renewable energies in the grid, while maintaining stability and dependability. New ICT tools and big data analytics, as exploited by the E-REGIO platform for local trade, will further assist this development, improving reliability, and optimising electricity production, consumption and grid operation.

28

Electric Vehicles and Batteries Can Drive Growth of Residential Solar

Written by: Gerard Wynn (IEEFA), Christian Kunze (Smart Innovation Norway), and Arjun Flora (Analyst)

Published at: IEEFA – Institute for Energy Economics and Financial Analysis, May 2019

Project of relevance:


Abstract:

This report assesses the prospects for residential solar, batteries and electric vehicles (EVs) in Britain and Germany. These technologies are expected to be at the centre of global energy system disruption in the future, because of declining costs and their close fit with a global energy system increasingly transitioning towards decarbonisation, decentralisation, digitalisation and democratisation.Strong mutual benefits make these technologies even more disruptive together than in isolation. The potential contribution of battery storage towards the electrification of mobility and heating further increases its relevance and impact.

27

Micromarkets in Microgrids – Chapter 3

Written by: Bernt Bremdal and Iliana Ilieva (Smart Innovation Norway)

Published at: The book Micro and Local Power Markets, 24 May 2019

Project of relevance:


About the book

Introduces readers to micro and local power markets and their use for local initiatives, grid integration, and future applications.

This book provides the basis for understanding micro power markets, emphasizing its application for local initiatives, the grid integration of renewable-based generation, and facilitating the decarbonization of the future electrical networks. It gives readers a comprehensive overview of the market operation, and highlights the basis of the design of local and micro markets.

Micro and Local Power Markets starts by covering the economics and basic principle of power markets, including the fundamentals of the power trading (for both wholesale and local markets). Following a definition of both micro and local (technical and economic aspects) power markets, the book then looks at the organization of such markets. It describes the design of those power markets, isolated from the wholesale markets, and examines the methodologies of the interaction between these power markets and wholesale markets. The book also presents cognitive business models for micro and local power markets, as well as the regulatory issues concerning them.

26

E-REGIO – Digital advances in local energy trading

Written by: Iliana Ilieva (Smart Innovation Norway)

Published at: SciTech Europa 31

Project of relevance: E-REGIO


Abstract:

With reference to the E-REGIO project, an important point to make is that digitalisation and digital trends are capable of increasing the integration of renewable energies in the grid, while maintaining stability and dependability. New ICT tools and big data analytics, as exploited by the E-REGIO platform for local trade, will further assist this development, improving reliability, and optimising electricity production, consumption and grid operation.

25

Local energy markets as a solution for increased energy efficiency and flexibility

Written by: Iliana Ilieva (Smart Innovation Norway), Bernt Bremdal (Smart Innovation Norway and UiT – The Arctic University of Norway), Agustin A. S. de la Nieta Lopez (Utrecht University) and Stig H. Simonsen (Skagerak Energi)

Published at: 1st Nordic Conference on Zero Emission and Plus Energy Buildings, 6-7 November 2019

Project of relevance: E-REGIO


Abstract:

With increasing share of distributed renewable energy resources in the grid and arising energy consumer awareness on environmental challenges, new market models are sought where energy can be traded in an efficient and end-user centric way. This trend, together with the increasing consciousness on the benefits of local consumption and production has given rise to an increased focus on local energy market structures.

Within the E-REGIO project, funded through the ERA-Net Smart Grid Plus initiative, local energy markets have been paid particular attention. This paper discusses opportunities associated with local energy trading, as verified through the E-REGIO local energy system pilot – Skagerak EnergiLab in Norway.

Embracing, among others, local loads, energy storage system, PV generation and a large consumer (stadium facility), the pilot-based simulations have produced some useful insides on the implementation of local energy markets and have helped collect learnings that can be of benefit for future local energy market establishments.

24

Multi-vector energy optimization tools for energy islands

Written by: Sanket Puranik, Heidi Tuiskula and Iliana Ilieva (Smart Innovation Norway), Ferran Torrent, Joan Colomer and Joaquim Meléndez (University of Girona)

Project of relevance: E-LAND


Abstract:

Synergies between multiple energy vectors can support decarbonization of local energy islands and, at the same time, relieve stress from the electricity grid. Multi-vector energy systems offer flexibility to integrate variable and economic local energy generation. However, the implementation and operation of multi-vector energy systems face technical, societal and business-related challenges. This paper identifies these challenges and proposes different tools to tackle them.

These tools are to be developed in the E-LAND project funded by European Union under the H2020 scheme. Special focus of the paper is on developing a method for optimal planning and operation of multi-vector grid considering robustness. Another novelty of technical tool lies in making scheduling decisions on long-term and short-term storage considering demand response as flexibility resource.

By combining technological, societal and business tools, the project expects to create multi-vector energy systems accepted by citizens and with viable business model.

© 2019 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works.

23

RESOLVD – Renewable Penetration Levered by Efficient Low Voltage Distribution Grids. Specification and Use Case Analysis

Written by: Joaquim Meléndez Frigola (Universitat de Girona – Spain), Isidoros Kokos (Intracom Telecom – Greece), Heidi Tuiskula (Smart Innovation Norway), Andreas Sumper (Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya – Spain), Stefan Marksteiner (Joanneum Research – Austria), Ramon Gallart (Estabanell Distribució – Spain), Miha Smolnikar (Comsensus – Slovenia), and Ferran Torrent Fontbona (Universitat de Girona – Spain)

Published at: CIRED 2019, 25th International Conference on Electricity Distribution

Project of relevance: RESOLVD


Abstract:

The paper presents the RESOLVD (Renewable penetration levered by efficient low voltage distribution grids) project, that aims to improve the efficiency and the hosting capacity of distribution networks, in a context of highly distributed renewable generation by introducing flexibility (storage management) and control in the low voltage (LV) grid.

The analysis methodology – which follows the Smart Grid Architecture Model (SGAM) framework paradigm – is presented, along with the identified use cases and actors.

The proposed initial architecture is also presented, as derived from the use case analysis process together with a cybersecurity analysis of integration and interoperability issues. The research is being motivated by business models and the expected impacts are summarized in the paper.

22

Identification and validation of new business models for DSO business environment using business model canvas and stakeholder groups

Written by: Heidi Tuiskula, Sanket Puranik, Iliana Ilieva and Christian Kunze (Smart Innovation Norway)

Published at:
 CIRED 2019, 25th International Conference on Electricity Distribution


Project of relevance:
 RESOLVD


Abstract:

Different technologies aiming to digitize the distribution grid are being developed within research and innovation (R&I) projects. To unlock the true potential of the digital technologies in the distribution grid, novel solutions must be coupled with new business models. However, creating and validating new business models in the early phase of the innovation process and during the relatively short period of R&I projects is a challenge.

This paper presents a methodology to create and validate new business models using business model canvas (BMC) and a stakeholder innovation group (SIG). The methodology is currently being tested in the RESOLVD project funded by European Union under the H2020 scheme.

21

DSOs as beneficiaries of innovative contracts and services, facilitated through local electricity market structures

Written by: Iliana Ilieva (Smart Innovation Norway) and Eivind Gramme (Skagerak Nett)

Published at:
CIRED 2019, 25th International Conference on Electricity Distribution


Project of relevance: 
E-REGIO


Abstract:

This paper focuses on contracts that a distribution system operator (DSO) would find attractive given it can utilise the flexibility offered through a local electricity market environment. The context for this research work is based on the E-REGIO project that investigates the roles of a local system operator (LSO) as related to the facilitation of grid and community services.

The current paper builds upon previous research by paying particular attention to the DSO’s needs and how these can be satisfied through innovative services and contract regimes.

Once a context of grid needs and the associated local market solution is set, and the theoretical description of the contracts and services is provided, the paper continues with an overview of the pilot-based approach used to verify the contract’s implementation as an instrument to meet the needs of the grid operators.

20

Bringing Business and Societal Impact Together in an Evolving Energy Sector

Written by: Iliana Ilieva (Smart Innovation Norway), Bernt Bremdal (Smart Innovation Norway and UiT – The Arctic University of Norway), and Sanket Puranik (Smart Innovation Norway)
Published at: ICEEEP 2019, 3rd International Conference on Energy Economics and Energy Policy
Project of relevance: INVADE


Abstract:

As the challenges associated with sustainability, urbanization, life quality and demography become more imminent, companies are adapting to the changing requirements by means of revised strategic approaches. Thus, enterprises are increasingly deviating from the traditionally absolute priority of maximizing total return for shareholders. While this priority is still important, businesses are also looking at the total societal impact (TSI), which represents a collection of measures and assessments that incorporate the economic, social and environmental impacts of their products and services.

This paper focuses on the compound influence that TSI may have within the energy domain. In particular, the business opportunities resulting from the Horizon 2020 funded project INVADE are being discussed but seen from the perspective of a socially responsible corporate strategy.

Referring to discussions, analyses and undertaken initiatives, this paper concludes that business models which incorporate environmentally friendly, local and social and fair energy are capable of accelerating business growth for the concerned companies.

19

Economic evaluation of the grid tariff for households with solar power installed

Written by: Hanne Sæle (Sintef Energi) and Bernt A. Bremdal (Smart Innovation Norway)

Published at:
 4th International Conference & Exhibition on Electricity Distribution (CIRED)


Project of relevance:
 FlexNett


Abstract:

This study focuses on alternative grid tariffs for household customers with roof top photovoltaic (PV) panels(‘prosumers’), and evaluates how alternative grid tariffs might affect the benefit from investing in a roof top PV panel.

The study further shows how different orientations of the PV panels can affect the benefits for the prosumers subjectedto different grid tariffs (e.g. a power grid tariff), where the idea is that self-consumption will produce the best economicyield. First different alternatives for distribution grid tariffs to household customers and prosumers are presented.

Afterwards, the study presents empirical data showing typical consumption and generation for some households with PV panels (located in south-eastern and central Norway).

18

Operational experiences of PEMFC pilot plant using low grade hydrogen from sodium chlorate production process

Written by: J. Ihonen, P. Koski, V. Pulkkinen, T. Keränen 1, H. Karimäki1, S. Auvinen, K. Nikiforow, M., Kotisaari and J. Viitakangas (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland), and H. Tuiskula (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland/Smart Innovation Norway)

Published at:
 International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Volume 42, Issue 44, 2 November 2017, Pages 27269-27283


Abstract:

A 50 kW PEMFC pilot plant has been operated 4400 hours using hydrogen originating from a sodium chlorate production process after standard industry purification processes were applied.

The first stage of the fuel cell system operation was performed using anode gas recirculation, while in the other stages an open anode configuration was applied. The fuel cell system did not show extensive degradation despite the low quality of the hydrogen and frequent shut-downs. The average degradation rate was 2-3 microvolts per hour at low and medium currents (10-150 A).

The main causes for any unreliability were found to be hydrogen supply side system components, namely pressure reducers and valves. Recommendations are given for the improvement of both PEMFC power plant design and operation for industrial hydrogen applications.

17

EMPOWER – A network market approach for local energy trade and renewable electricity system integration

Written by: B. Bremdal, J. Rajasekharan, C.W. Kunze and P. Olivella-Rosell (Smart Innovation Norway)


Published at:
 Proceedings of the 7th International Workshop on Integration of Solar Power into Power Systems, Berlin, Germany, Oct. 24-25, 2017


Project of relevance:
 EMPOWER


Abstract:

This paper describes the local market for trade in energy, flexibility and energy related services developed in the ongoing H2020 project, EMPOWER. It is based on a network market approach.

The establishment of a local community of prosumers and consumers, inspired by Internet communities, energy cooperatives and online shopping clubs, is central to the idea. At the heart of the community the Smart Energy Service Provider (SESP) can be found.

The principal entities and operations associated with the local market concept developed are explained. Some early field results as well as regulatory challenges for a broader roll-out are described.

16

Using Ant Colony Optimization to determine influx of EVs and charging station capacities

Written by: Kristoffer Tangrand (Smart Technology Group, ICT Dept. University of Tromsø), and Bernt A. Bremdal (Smart Technology Group, ICT Dept. University of Tromsø Narvik/Smart Innovation Norway)

Published at:
2016 IEEE International Energy Conference (ENERGYCON)


Abstract:

This paper presents a novel method for determining plug-in Elecric Vehicle (EV) traffic and associated recharging needs based on an ACO (Ant Colony Optimization) method. The method is used to analyze traffic patterns and to determine their impact on the local grid and the design of charging stations.

The research reported here also supports the design of a portfolio of Charging Stations (CSs) across a limited geographical area and use this to determine the required capacities of each station. An empirical basis for the research presented has been gathered from Norway where the number of EVs are growing fast and where use of EVs for different purposes, including long-range driving, are becoming very pronounced. The research presented also shows how demand for charging at different times can be determined.

This lays the foundation for estimating peak loads in the local grid due to EV charging. For the individual driver the system presented can be used to find preferred routing under different circumstances such as traffic congestion.

15

Day-ahead micro-market design for distributed energy resources

Written By: Pol Olivella-Rosell, Guillem Viñals-Canal, Andreas Sumper and Roberto Villafafila-Robles (Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya), Bernt Bremdal (Smart Innovation Norway/UiT), Iliana Ilieva (Smart Innovation Norway), Stig Ødegaard Ottesen (Norwegian University of Science and Technology)

Published at:
 EnergyCon 2016


Abstract:

This paper defines a day-ahead micro-market structure and illustrates its capability of increasing distributed energy resources’ integration. This micro-market mimics in the distribution level the structure of the current European day-ahead markets and their rules to introduce competition, and is based on the social welfare indicator.

Micro-markets could overcome two major challenges of pool markets: they could consider the distribution network to ensure feasibility of the matched configurations and they could handle a high penetration of renewable energy without generation costs. A micro-market is controlled and supervised by the micro-market operator who executes the auction algorithm.

This paper exposes a state-of-the-art about micro-markets, proposes a structure and a set of rules, and shows micro-market’s behaviour in a case study. The results show that with under-sized distribution networks the micro-market can effectively improve the social welfare with respect to other simpler approaches.

14

Batterier og smarte elnett

Written by: Bernt Bremdal (Smart Innovation Norway/UiT – The Arctic University of Norway)

Presented at:
 Teknologien endrer samfunnet, 2017

Abstract:

Hele det europeiske elektrisitetssystemet er én stor maskin. Et mangfold av kraftverk opererer helt synkront på det samme nettet, med umiddelbar respons på tvers av kontinenter, slik at enda flere forbrukere skal kunne benytte sine husholdningsmaskiner, verktøy og instrumenter i det samme øyeblikket.

Det er et gigantisk sanntidssystem som opererer med høy presisjon fra mikrosekund til mikrosekund. Nøyaktig kontroll og regulering av vekselstrømmens frekvens og faser i samme øyeblikk i hele elsystemet er viktig. På samme måte må man sikre at spenningen ligger rundt 230 volt. I det øyeblikket folk står opp om morgenen, slår på kaffetrakteren og går i dusjen, må forsyningen reagere spontant.

Den elektronstrømmen som får varmeelementet i trakteren til å gløde, må genereres et sted i nettet i samme øyeblikk som bryteren slås på. Slik har systemet fungert i mer enn 100 år. Men nye utfordringer og ny teknologi krever endring.

13

EMPOWER: A network market approach for local energy trade

Written by: Bernt Bremdal (Smart Innovation Norway/UiT), Pol Olivella-Rosell and Jayaprakash Rajasekharan (Smart Innovation Norway)

Published at: 
Powertech conference 2017


Project of relevance:
 EMPOWER


Abstract:

This paper describes the local market for trade in energy, flexibility and energy related services developed in the ongoing H2020 project, EMPOWER. It is based on a network market approach.

The establishment of a local community of prosumers and consumers, inspired by Internet communities, energy cooperatives and online shopping clubs, is central to the idea.

At the heart of the community the Smart Energy Service Provider (SESP) can be found. The principal entities and operations associated with the local market concept developed are explained. Some early field results described.

12

Design and Operational Characteristics of Local Energy and Flexibility Markets in the Distribution Grid

Written by: Jayaprakash Rajasekharan (Smart Innovation Norway), Bernt Bremdal (Smart Innovation Norway/UiT), Stig Ødegaard Ottesen (Norwegian University of Science and Technology), Pol Olivella-Rosell, Roberto Villafafila-Robles and Andreas Sumper (Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya)

Published at:
Proceedings from the eurelectric-florence school of regulation conference, June 7, 2017


Project of relevance: 
EMPOWER


Abstract:

The coming up decarbonized European electricity system with the proliferation of distributed and renewable energy production sources have created a global surge of interest in local electricity markets for neighbourhoods. Moreover, the European electricity system in 2050 will have millions of prosumers, electric vehicles and storage units willing to provide energy and flexibility that will be capitalized in distribution grids.

Our vision is an integrated wholesale market with geographical distributed multiple local markets. This topic has caught the attention of policy makers, regulatory bodies and researchers alike.

In this paper, we present some of the results on local market design and operation that has been developed in Work Package 6 of EMPOWER Horizon 2020 project. We propose a new market player role titled Smart Energy Service Provider (SESP) that manages the local market for energy, flexibility and other services. SESP provides an ICT trading platform for local players in the distribution grid such as DSO, prosumers, consumers, storage owners, distributed generators and others to participate in various local markets.

11

Local Flexibility Market Design for Aggregators Providing Multiple Flexibility Services at Distribution Network Level

Written by: Pol Olivella-Rosell, Pau Lloret-Gallego, Íngrid Munné-Collado, Roberto Villafafila-Robles and Andreas Sumper (Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya), Stig Ødegaard Ottessen (eSmart Systems), Jayaprakash Rajasekharan, (Smart Innovation Norway), and Bernt A. Bremdal (Smart Innovation Norway/UiT)

Published at:
 Energies 2018, 11(4), 822


Abstract:

This paper presents a general description of local flexibility markets as a marketbased management mechanism for aggregators. The high penetration of distributed energy resources introduces new flexibility services like prosumer or community self-balancing, congestion management and time-of-use optimization.

This work is focused on the flexibility framework to enable multiple participants to compete for selling or buying flexibility. In this framework, the aggregator acts as a local market operator and supervises flexibility transactions of the local energy community. Local market participation is voluntary. Potential flexibility stakeholders are the distribution system operator, the balance responsible party and end-users themselves. Flexibility is sold by means of loads, generators, storage units and electric vehicles.

Finally, this paper presents needed interactions between all local market stakeholders, the corresponding inputs and outputs of local market operation algorithms from participants and a case study to highlight the application of the local flexibility market in three scenarios. The local market framework could postpone grid upgrades, reduce energy costs and increase distribution grids’ hosting capacity.

10

Platform based business models in the future energy market

Written by: Dagfinn Wåge (Lyse AS), Bernt A. Bremdal (Smart Innovation Norway), and Gunnar Edwin Crawford (Smart City Stavanger)

Published at: 
CIRED workshop 2018 on microgrids and local energy communities


Project of relevance:
 INVADE


Abstract:

Global markets are experiencing a paradigm-shift due to the introduction of new business models. In addition to this, the shift towards prosumers, customer friendly regulation and services and decentralized energy markets are now making their way into the energy markets. To address these challenges the Horizon 2020 project named INVADE is developing technology platforms and platform based business models in parallel to address these challenges.

Our approach has been to study the effects of platform based business models in other industries, what platform based business models look like, how they work, and how they are currently developed in energy markets.

The next step has been to confront the technical work packages and the pilot owners in the project to align theory with practice. This has produced tangible outcomes.

9

Creating a local energy market

Written by: Iliana Ilieva, Bernt Bremdal, Jayaprakash Rajasekharan, and Pol Olivella-Rosell (Smart Innovation Norway)

Published at: 
24th International Conference and Exhibition on Electricity Distribution (CIRED)


Project of relevance:
 EMPOWER


Abstract:

The local energy market concept in EMPOWER is introduced. It places emphasis on a value-oriented approach and not energy price alone. It is organised within a neighbourhood and supported by a platform-based business model.

The concept integrates trade in energy, end-user flexibility and energy-related services and products. Example contracts are presented along with initial results related to recruitment and establishment of such markets.

8

Design characteristics of a smart grid dominated local market

Written by: Iliana Ilieva, Bernt Bremdal and Jayaprakash Rajasekharan (Smart Innovation Norway), Stig Ødegaard Ottesen (eSmart Systems), and Pol Olivella-Rosell (Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya)

Published at:
 CIRED Workshop 2016


Project of relevance:
 EMPOWER


Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to describe the roles, services and relationships that a local market would encompass, and the type of market interactions that should take place in it. The local market place constitutes an arena for a new business role – the smart energy service provider, which represents the entity with the most central functionalities with respect to local market operation.

The local market is described as consisting of three key elements of brokerage/sale: energy, flexibility and other services. Three alternative market settings are considered: islanding mode, interaction with the wholesale market and a third one where other market agents (aggregators/retailers) carry the interactions with the wholesale market.

Finally, the paper specifies the relationship between the smart energy service provider and the various local market actors and provides a clarifying user case.

7

Flexibility offered to the distribution grid from households with a photovoltaic panel on their roof: Results and experiences from several pilots in a Norwegian research project

Written by: Bernt A Bremdal (Smart Innovation Norway/University of Tromsø), Hanne Sæle, Merkebu Zenebe Degefa, (SINTEF Energy Researc), and Geir Mathisen (SINTEF Digital)

Published at:
 EnergyCon 2018


Project of relevance:
 FlexNett


Abstract:

The objective of this study is to evaluate how PV-oriented prosumers can offer flexibility to the Distribution System Operator (DSO). The different cases focus on the customer and changes on the customer side that will benefit both the customer and the distribution grid. (Actual tests of services delivered to the DSO have not been performed.)

The study also highlights the importance of being proactive about the placement of roof top panels near the loads in the grid for a better balance between PV-output and loads at the terminal points in the grid. This approach demonstrated the secure operations of the grid well below the capacity limits and yield better rewards for the prosumer.

In this study, storage options at the prosumer side are also considered and both technical and economic aspects are analysed. Special emphasis is placed on the impact of power tariff structures that include capacity considerations.